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বিসিএস প্রিলিমিনারি ইংরেজি প্রস্তুতি পর্বঃ-১ (Tense)

বিসিএস প্রিলিমিনারি ইংরেজি প্রস্তুতি
English preparation (Tense)

Tense

Tense (কাল): Tense অর্থ কাল বা সময়। কোনো কাজ সম্পাদনের সময়কে tense বলে। ল্যাটিন শব্দ ‘tempus’ থেকে tense শব্দটি এসেছে। tempus অর্থ সময়।

Tense-এর প্রকারভেদ: Verb-এর কাজ অনুযায়ী tense প্রধানত তিন প্রকার। যথা:
১) Present tense (বর্তমান কাল)
২) Past tense (অতীত কাল)
৩) Future tense (ভবিষ্যৎ কাল)

১. Present tense (বর্তমান কাল): যে কাজ বর্তমান কালে সম্পন্ন হয় বা হয়ে থাকে বোঝায়, তাকে verb-এর present tense বা বর্তমান কাল বলে।

যেমন: I go to school,

He writes a letter,

He draws a picture.

২. Past tense (অতীত কাল): যে কাজ অতীতকালে সম্পন্ন হয়েছিল বা ঘটেছিল বোঝায়, তাকে verb-এর past tense বা অতীত কাল বলে।
যেমন: I went to school.

He wrote a letter yesterday.

He drew a picture.

৩. Future tense (ভবিষ্যৎ কাল): ভবিষ্যৎ কালে কোনো কাজ সম্পন্ন হবে বোঝালে, তাকে verb-এর future tense বা ভবিষ্যৎ কাল বলে।
যেমন: I shall buy a pen.

I shall go to Dhaka.

They will play football etc.

প্রত্যেকটি tense-কে আবার চার ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়। যথা:
১) Indefinite (অনির্দিষ্ট)

২) Continuous (চলতি অবস্থা)

৩) Perfect (সম্পন্ন বা শেষ অবস্থা) ও

৪) Perfect continuous (পূর্ব থেকে আরম্ভ হয়ে চলতে থাকা)

Present tense (বর্তমান কাল)

১. Present indefinite tense: বর্তমান কালে কোনো কাজ সাধারণভাবে হয় বা হয়ে থাকে এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর present indefinite tense হয়। চিরন্তন সত্য, নিকট ভবিষ্যৎ, অভ্যাস, প্রকৃতি বোঝাতেও present indefinite tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর মূল verb-এর present form ব্যবহূত হয়। তবে subject (কর্তা) third person singular number হলে মূল verb-এর শেষে s বা es যোগ করতে হয়।

Structure of present simple:

positive and negative—  

I work in a bank.
You work in a bank.
We work in a bank.
They work in a bank.
I don’t (do not) work.
You don’t (do not) work.
We don’t (do not) work.
They don’t (do not) work.
Do I work in a bank?
Do you work in a bank?
Do we work in a bank?
Do they work in a bank?
He works in a bank.
She works in a bank.
The bank opens at 9 o’clock.
He doesn’t (does not) work.
She doesn’t (does not) work.
It doesn’t (does not) open at 9 o’clock.
Does he work?
Does she work?
Does it open at 9 o’clock

২. Present continuous tense: বর্তমান কালে কোনো কাজ হচ্ছে বা চলছে এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর present continuous tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর person ও number অনুসারে am, is, are বসে এবং মূল verb-এর শেষে ing যোগ হয়।

Structure of present continuous:

positive & negative question

I’m (I am) reading a book.
You’re (you are) reading.
We’re (we are) reading.
They’re (they are) reading.
I’m (I am) not reading.
You’re (you are) not reading.
We’re (we are) not reading.
They’re (they are) not reading.
Am I reading?
Are you reading?
Are we reading?
Are they reading?
He’s (he is) reading a book.
She’s (she is) reading a book.
It’s (it is) raining.
He’s not / he isn’t (he is not) reading.
She’s not / she isn’t (she is not) reading.
It’s not / it isn’t (it is not) raining.
Is he reading?
Is she reading?
Is it raining?

Present continuous – common mistakes Common mistakes—–Correct version

They still waiting for you.×

They are still waiting for you.√

=to form a continuous tense we use be + -ing.

They are still waiting for you?×

Are they still waiting for you?√

=In questions the subject (they) and the auxiliary verb (be) change places.

Do they still waiting for you?×

Are they still waiting for you?√

Where they are waiting for you?×

Where are they waiting for you?√

She doesn’t watching TV.×

She isn’t watching TV.√

=To form the negative we put not after the verb be (am not, is not = isn’t, are not = aren’t).
I’m believing you.
I believe you.

=Some verbs are not used in continuous tenses – these are called stative verbs (e.g.believe, come from, cost, depend, exist, feel, hate, like).

৩.Present perfect tense: বর্তমান কালে কোনো কাজ এই মাত্র শেষ হয়েছে কিন্তু তার ফল এখনো বর্তমান আছে, এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর present perfect tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর person ও number অনুসারে have বা has বসে এবং মূল verb-এর past participle form ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Structure of present perfect: positive & negative question-

I’ve (I have) seen him.
You’ve done it.
We’ve been there.
They’ve eaten it.
I haven’t (have not) seen him.
You haven’t done it.
We haven’t been there.
They haven’t eaten it.
Have I seen him?
Have you done it?
Have we been there?
Have they eaten it?
He’s (he has) gone.
She’s (she has) finished.
It’s (it has) gone.
He hasn’t (has not) gone.
She hasn’t finished.
It hasn’t gone.Has he gone?
Has she finished?
Has it gone?

Present perfect simple –

common mistakes Common mistakes – Correct version

Steven has wrote a new book.×

Steven has written a new book.√

=The past participle of the verb must be used – wrote is past simple, written is the past participle.

Did you have seen him before?×

Have you seen him before?√

=The helping verb ‘have’ is used in the present perfect- it is inverted with the person

(you have becomes have you).
I didn’t have seen him before.×

I haven’t seen him before.√

=The helping verb ‘have’ is used in the present perfect- to make it negative we

simply add not(n’t).
I am here since last week.×

I have been here since last week.√

=The present perfect is used to show an action which continues to the present (an unfinished action).

I’ve been knowing him for 5 years.×

I’ve known him for 5 years.√

=Verbs such as know, want,like, etc. (stative verbs) suggest permanent states, not actions, so are used in the simple form, NOT the -ing form.

৪.Present perfect continuous tense: বর্তমান কালে কোনো কাজ পূর্ব থেকে আরম্ভ হয়ে এখনো হচ্ছে বা চলছে এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর present perfect continuous tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর person ও number অনুসারে have been বা has been বসে এবং মূল verb-এর শেষে ing যোগ হয়।

Structure of present perfect continuous: positive question & negative

I have (I’ve) been living here for two years.
He has (he’s) been waiting for you.
Have you been living here for a long time?
What has she been doing?
I have not (haven’t) been waiting for long.
He has not (hasn’t) been working.

Present perfect continuous :
Common mistakes – Correct version

It has been rain heavily all day.×

It has been raining heavily all day.√

=The structure of the present perfect continuous is have/has been -ing.

I have sat here for two hours.×

I have been sitting here for two hours.√

=Verbs such as sit, wait, speak, etc. (non-stative verbs) suggest continuity and so are mostly used in the continuous (-ing) form.Which?
I have worked here for five years. ×

I have been working here for five years.√

=When BOTH the simple and continuous forms are possible, native speakers prefer to use the continuous.

Past tense (অতীত কাল)

১. Past indefinite tense: অতীত কালে কোনো কাজ সাধারণভাবে হয়েছিল এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর past indefinite tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর মূল verb-এর past form ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Structure of past simple: positive – negative question
I arrived yesterday.
You arrived yesterday.
He/she/it arrived.
We arrived.
They arrived.I didn’t (did not) arrive.
You didn’t (did not) arrive.
He/she/it didn’t arrive.
We didn’t arrive.
They didn’t arrive.Did I arrive yesterday?
Did you arrive?
Did he/she/it arrive?
Did we arrive?
Did they arrive?

Past simple – common mistakes :
Common mistakes — Correct version

I was work in London.×

I worked in London.√

=In positive sentences, a helping verb such as ‘was’ or ‘did’ is not used.

He worked in London?×

Did he work in London?√

=The helping verb ‘did’ is used in past simple questions.

Worked he in London?×

Did he work in London?√

=The helping verb ‘did’ is used in past simple questions.

Did he wrote a letter?×

Did he write a letter?√

=The main verb is used in the infinitive form in questions and negatives.

He didn’t wrote a letter.×

He didn’t write a letter.√

=The main verb is used in the infinitive form in questions and negatives.

২.Past continuous tense: অতীত কালে কোনো কাজ হচ্ছিল বা চলছিল এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর past continuous tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর person ও number অনুসারে was বা were বসে এবং মূল verb-এর শেষে ing যোগ হয়।

Structure of past continuous: positive & negative question
I was reading a book.
He/she was talking.
It was raining.
I wasn’t (was not) reading.
He/she wasn’t talking.
It wasn’t raining.
Was I reading?
Was he/she talking?
Was it raining?
You were reading a book.
We were waiting.
They were drinking.
You weren’t (were not) reading.
We weren’t talking.
They weren’t drinking.
Were you reading?
Were we waiting?
Were they drinking?

Past continuous – common mistakes:

Common mistakes— Correct version

I waiting for him almost two hours.×

I was waiting for him almost two hours.√

=To form the past continuous we use was/were + ing.

What did he doing when you saw him×

What was he doing when you saw him?√

We were playing tennis every morning.×

We played tennis every morning.√

=We use the past simple for repeated actions in the past.

They watched TV when I came.×

They were watching TV when I came.√

=We use the past continuous when we want to say what was happening (what was in progress) at a particular time in the past.

৩.Past perfect tense: অতীত কালে সংঘটিত দুটি কাজের মধ্যে পূর্বে সংঘটিত কাজটির verb-এর past perfect tense হয় এবং পরে সংঘটিত কাজটির verb-এর past indefinite tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর had বসে এবং মূল verb-এর past participle form ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Structure of past perfect: positive & negative question
I’d (I had) seen him.
You’d done it.
We’d been there.
They’d eaten it.
I hadn’t (had not) seen him.
You hadn’t done it.
We hadn’t been there.
They hadn’t eaten it.
Had I seen him?
Had you seen her?
Had we finished it?
Had they been there?
He’d (he had) gone.
She’d (she had) gone.
It’d (it had) gone.
He hadn’t (had not) gone.
She hadn’t gone.
It hadn’t gone.Had he been here?
Had she finished?
Had it gone?

Past perfect continuous – common mistakes:

Common mistakes— Correct version

didn’t been to London.×

I hadn’t been to London.√

=The helping verb had (negative -hadn’t) is used in the past perfect.

When I saw him, I noticed that he had a haircut.×

When I saw him I noticed that he had had a haircut.√

= The action (haircut) which happened before another past action must be put into the past perfect to make the time order clear to the listener.
He told me has been to London.×

He told me he had been to London.√

= His original words were: ”I have been to London.’ However, in reported speech we move the tense back – the present perfect (have been) becomes past perfect (had been).

৪. Past perfect continuous tense: অতীত কালে সংঘটিত দুটি কাজের মধ্যে পূর্বে সংঘটিত কাজটি কিছু সময় যাবত চলছিল এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর past perfect continuous tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর had been বসে এবং মূল verb-এর শেষে ing যোগ হয়।

Structure of past perfect continuous:
positive & negative question
I had (I’d) been waiting.
You had (you’d) been cooking.
He/she/it had been eating.
We had (we’d) been waiting.
They had (they’d) been playing.
Had I been waiting?
Had you been working?
Had he/she/it been waiting?
Had we been eating?
Had they been talking?
I hadn’t (had not) been waiting.
You hadn’t been waiting
He/she/it hadn’t been waiting.
We hadn’t been working.
They hadn’t been working.

Past perfect continuous – common mistakes:

Common mistakes & Correct version

I had working hard, so I felt very tired.×

I had been working hard, so I felt very tired.√

=The form of the past perfect continuous is had + been + verb-ing.

I had been worked hard, so I felt very tired.×
I had been hearing the song many times before.×

I had heard the song many times before.√

=Some verbs are not normally used in the continuous form, e.g. stative verbs such asknow, like, understand, believe,hear, etc.

Future tense (ভবিষ্যৎ কাল)

১.Future indefinite tense: ভবিষ্যৎ কালে কোন কাজ সাধারণভাবে সংঘটিত হবে এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর future indefinite tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর person ও number অনুসারে shall বা will বসে এবং মূল verb-এর present form ব্যবহৃত হয়।

যেমন:
1) I shall go to Sylhet.
2) He will buy a book.
3) He will not learn English.
4) Will you play football?

Structure of future simple statement & negative question

I will (I’ll) be there tomorrow.
You will (you’ll) be there.
He/she/it will (he’ll) be there.
We will (we’ll) be there.
They will (they’ll) be there.
I won’t (will not) be there.
You won’t be there.
He/she/it won’t be there.
We won’t be there.
They won’t be there.
Will I be there tomorrow?
Will you be there?
Will he/she/it be there?
Will we be there?
Will they be there?

Future simple – common mistakes

Common mistakes—Correct version

The phone’s ringing.

– OK, I’m going to answer it.×

Ok – I’ll answer it.√

=If the action is decided at the moment of speaking, we use ‘will’ / ‘will not’.

I’m sure he is going to help you.×

I’m sure he will help you.√

=When we say what we think or expect, we use ‘will’.

I won’t probably be there.×
I probably won’t be there.

I’ll probably be there.√

=The adverbs ‘definitely’ and ‘probably’ comes before ‘won’t’ but after ‘will’

I promise I’m going to help.×

I promise I’ll help.√

=After ‘promise’ we usually use ‘will’, not the ‘going to’ future.

I’ll call you when I’ll come to my office.×

I’ll call you when I come to my office.√

=When we refer to the future in adverbial clauses, we normally use the present simple (after ‘when’, ‘as soon as’ and ‘until’).

If you will give me your address, I’ll send you a postcard.×

If you give me your address, I’ll send you a postcard.√

=When we refer to the future in conditional clauses, we normally use the present simple.

I can’t see you next week. I will return to Paris.×

I can’t see you next week. I am returning/am going to returnto Paris.√

=To show that the decision was made in the past, we use the present continuous or the ‘going to’ future.

২.Future continuous tense: ভবিষ্যৎ কালে কোনো কাজ কিছু সময় ধরে হতে থাকবে বা চলতে থাকবে বোঝালে verb-এর future continuous tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর person ও number অনুসারে shall be বা will be বসে এবং মূল verb-এর শেষে ing যোগ হয়। যেমন:

Structure of future continuous:

I will (I’ll) be waiting there at five o’clock.
You will (I’ll) be waiting.
He/she/it will (he’ll) be waiting.
We will (we’ll) be waiting.
They will (they’ll) be waiting.
I will not (won’t) be waiting.
You will not be waiting.
He/she/it will not be waiting.
We will not be waiting.
They will not be waiting.
Will I be waiting there?
Will you be waiting?
Will he/she/it be waiting?
Will we be waiting?
Will they be waiting?

৩. Future perfect tense: ভবিষ্যৎ কালে সংঘটিত দুটি কাজের মধ্যে অপেক্ষাকৃত পূর্বে সংঘটিত কাজটির verb-এর future perfect Tense হয় এবং পরে সংঘটিত কাজটির verb-এর Present/future indefinite tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর person ও number অনুসারে shall have বা will have বসে এবং মূল verb-এর past participle form ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Structure of future perfect (simple):
positive & negative question

The film will have started by the time we get there.
The film will not (won’t) have started by the time we get there.
Will the film have started by the time we get there?

Future perfect simple – common mistakes:

Common mistakes & Correct version

The film will already has started by the time we get home.×

The film will already havestarted by the time we get home.√

=The form of the future perfect is
will + have + past participle.

Will have you finished it by the time I come back?×

Will you have finished it by the time I come back?√

=The structure for questions is:
will + subject + have + past participle.

যেমন:
1) I shall have done the sum before I go to school.
2) She will have done the work by this time.
3) They will have reached home before the rain sets in.
4) I shall have finished the work before father comes.

৪.Future perfect continuous tense: ভবিষ্যৎ কালে সংঘটিত দুটি কাজের মধ্যে একটি কাজ অপর কাজটি শুরু হওয়ার পূর্ব পর্যন্ত কিছুকাল ধরে চলতে থাকবে বোঝালে পূর্ববর্তী কাজটি future perfect continuous tense হয় এবং পরবর্তী কাজটি Present/future indefinite tense হয়।

গঠন প্রণালি: Subject-এর পর shall have been বা will have been বসে এবং মূল verb-এর শেষে ing যোগ হয়।

Structure of future perfect continuous:
positive & negative question

Next year I’ll (I will) have been working in the company for 10 years.
I won’t (will not) have been working in the company for 10 years.
Will you have been working in the company for 10 years?

Future perfect continuous – common mistakes :

Common mistakes—Correct version

I will have working in the company for five years next month.×

I will have been working in the company for five years next month.√

=The form of the future perfect continuous is
will + have + been + past participle.

I will haven’t been working in the company for five years next month.×

I will not (won’t) have been working in the company for five years next month.√

=The form of the negative is
will not + have + been + past participle.

Will have you been working in the company for five years next month?×

Will you have been workingin the company for five years next month?√

=The form of the question is
will + subject + have + been + past participle.

I’ll have been working in three different
positions at the company by the end of the year.×
I’ll have worked in three different positions at the company by the end of the year.√

=We use the simple form when we talk about an amount or number.

যেমন:
1) I shall have been doing the sum before he arrives.
2) She will take rest after she will have been walking for two hours.
3) They will have been playing before the sun sets.
4) I shall have been sleeping before the sun rises.

➡Rusas – Mostafizar Moshtak

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